Big Bang Theory Brief Introduction

Everyone on this earth has that question in mind which constantly keeps hitting them like, tell me, tell me now, how was the universe created, how did it actually come into existence, how are they present here, how long are they going to stay here or what is going to happen in future with this earth. But never really got an answer to this, although according to scientific studies, there is one theory which explains some points that somehow makes answer valid for our brains. And this theory is what that you can call as, big bang theory. You always are taught to believe that the universe is infinite and thus no one can really find out about how it ever came into existence, but this theory made it somehow proved as wrong. According to big bang theory, it is about 13.8 million years ago when this universe came into existence and that too as a singularity. 

Now, what does this “singularity” word actually refers to? Well, there is not any perfect explanation to this word, but it is believed that singularity refers to the zone which can really disobey the concept of physics that you may have been studying from years as it says that singularity exists in the core of black hole. You know the hole which is considered as the areas of intense gravitational pressure and the pressure is believed to be so much intense that it can actually squish up the finite matter into infinite density where infinite densities are known as singularities. 

Also, it is believed that our universe actually originated as infinitely small, infinitely hot and also infinitely dense, but no one actually knows about where it came from. And then after that initial appearance it actually exploded (what you can also call as big bang) and cooled, in more simple language you can say that it actually transformed from being that very very hot and very very small to the current version and gave a home to us, unique creatures on this unique planet. If you are asking about what was there before this entire thing, well the answer to this is there was nothing; yes there was nothing at all according to studies. Also, there are many other names that are been given to this theory, as when it was initially proposed by Lemaitre, he called his observation as primaeval atom which was years later changed by George Gamow as Ylem, also it was oncecalled as a primordial atom and cosmic egg. History of Big Bang theory is Now before you can take any step forward about knowing more on big bang theory it is important that you earn about what is the history of big bang theory as it will help in better understanding. Starting over the history, what is the first thing that is needed to be discussed here, what gave birth to this big bang theory or you can say what is the thing that led to the indication of big bang theory at the very first step?

What Really Happens After Big Bang

So, on the answer to this, in 20th century there were some observations made related to the universe or you can say spiral galaxies by an American astronomer named as Vesto Slipher which calculated their Doppler redshifts that result the only thing that was found was that all the spiral galaxies were moving away from their own. Moving forward in the year 1922, Russiancosmologist Alexander Friedmann through his examines developed what you may be known by the name of Friedmann equations and that was that time derived usingEinstein’s equations of general relativity. Before this, Friedmann discovery about the universe being in the state of expansion was that pure conflict to einstein's Cosmological Constant which finally made him believe that this discovery was not at all wrong and universe is actually in the state of expansion. Then, in 1924 Edwin Hubble’s calculation of the great distance to the nearby coiled nebula showed that these structures were certainly another galaxies, along with which he carried out with his calculations finding out a distance between these objects and thus 1929 came up with the discovery according to which there is some relation between the universe and other celestial bodies, which is now also known by the name of Hubble’s law. And on the other side, in 1927 Georges Lemaitre(a Belgian physicist and Roman Catholic Priest) was working upon the equations derived by Friedmann and that too independently, as a result of which he discovered that this distance between the universe and celestial bodies is increasing because of the expansion of universe. 

In 1931 he took this theory forward and suggested that now if the universe is expanding, that clearly indicates if one moves back in time then what they are going to find is that universe actually started from nothing, well nobody really knows that but itis truly believed that universe at first was too much dense and hot. However, there were lots of discussions about this in the 20s and 30s and lots of critics came forward to make this theory go false, also Lemaitre was accused of making this theory come into existence. There were some other theories which were derived at this same time discussion about how the whole of the universe came into existence and what it is all about, such as Milne model ancillary universe model which was derived on the basis of Einstein’s theory of relativity according to which universe was moving on those definite or indefinite cycles. As World War II got into rest, followers of the steady-state model and big bang theory were on a debate and big bang theory was already into the air and was grabbing more and more popularity. And finally got confirmation with the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation in 1965 and thus made it come out as the best theory about the beginning and development of the universe. And moving forward, it got to have that solid base as astronomers and cosmologists made all of their efforts between the era of 60s to 90s. Moving forward, there were a number of modifications made in this theory in the late 90s and 21st century so as to make it more understandable by people. In 1988, it was also found that expansion of the universe is accelerating which was also supported by various observations made by ground-based CMB and many other galaxy redshift surveys.

The Big Bang Theory

The beginning of everything. The Big Bang. The idea that tells us that the universe was suddenly born and is not infinite. Until Einstein’s theory of relativity gave us a better understanding of gravity and more, and Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving apart from one another in a way in which that fits previous predictions. Since then, improved technology like the Hubble telescope has given us a pretty good picture of theBig Bang and the structure of the cosmos. Recent observations even seem to suggest that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. But how did this Big Bang work? 

How can something come from nothing? Let’s explore what we know. We can ignore the beginning part for now. First of all, I want to tell that, the Big Bang was not an explosion. It was all space which is stretching everywhere all at once. The universe started very, very, very small and I can't say in my own words and quickly expanded to the size of a football. The universe cannot expand into anything but and because the universe has no borders; so there is, by definition, no “outside” the universe. The universe is all there is. In this hot, dense environment, energy manifested itself in particles that existed only for the tiniest glimpses of time. These found other short-lived quarks which are the smallest particles ever found to interact with, forming new quark pairs and gluons again. Matter and energy were not only just theoretically equivalent but also it was so hot they were practically the same stuff. Somewhere around this time, matter won over antimatter. Instead of one massive ultimate force in the universe which is yet not defined, there were now several refined versions of it acting under different rules. By now the universe has stretched to billion kilometres in diameter, which leads to a decrease in temperature.


 >From now on, we work with what we have. Quarks begin forming new particles, hadrons, like protons and neutrons. There are many, many combinations of quarks that can form all sorts of hadrons, but only very few are reasonably stable for any length of time. Please take a moment to appreciate that by now means when that has happened, only one second has passed since the beginning of everything. The universe, that has grown to one hundred billion kilometres, is now cold enough to allow most of the neutrons to decay into protons and form the first atom, which is hydrogen. Imagine the universe at this point as an extremely hot soup, which is hot about ten billion degrees Celsius filled with countless particles and energy. Over the next few minutes, things cooled and settled down very fast. Atoms formed out of hadrons and electrons, making for a stable and electrically neutral environment. Some call this period the Dark Age, and this is because there were no stars and the hydrogen gas that didn’t allow visible light to move around. Okay, but what about the part we didn’t talk about? What happened right at the beginning?  To understand what happened here, we need a understand theory that unifies Einstein’s relativity and quantum mechanics, and something countless scientists are working at our time on right now. But this leaves us with lots of unanswered questions. Were there universes before our own? Is this the first and only universe? What started the Big Bang is still a mystery, or did it just occur naturally, based on laws we don’t understand yet? We don’t know really and may be we never will. But what we do know is that the universe as we know it has started here and given birth to particles, galaxies, stars, the Earth, and you and many more. Since we're ourselves are made of dead stars, we are not separate from the universe; we are part of it. You could even not say that we are the universe's way of experiencing itself.

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