One of the biggest mysteries in the universe is dark matter.

Introduction To Dark Matter

One of the biggest mysteries in the universe is dark matter. Astrophysicists have been observing the universe for many decades now and they tell us that in addition to all the visible matter we can see around us there must be some other type of out there. So far we’ve only seen it through gravitational forces; maybe it has other forces, maybe we could detect it, we don’t know. One of the biggest puzzles in the understanding of astrophysics and cosmology is what is this dark matter.

Basic Information About Dark Matter

The dark matter field is an intense area of research, with the problem being addressed on several complementary fronts. Astrophysical observations such as of the cosmic microwave background radiation, of the clustering of galaxies and the abundance of galaxy clusters, to name a few, constrain the dark matter properties and distribution on large scales. Laboratory searches in experiments operated deep underground aim to probe the nature of the dark matter particle, and eventually study its local phase-space distribution, while astrophysical searches of dark matter annihilation products can study regions of increased dark matter density in our galaxy or in nearby dwarf galaxies, which are dark matter dominated. In recent years the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva constrains the production of dark matter particles, while a series of precision measurements at the intensity frontier is sensitive to another type of candidates, including axions and axion-like-particles.

What Is Dark Matter ??

Decaying dark matter should produce a bright and spherical halo of X-ray emission around the centre of the Milky Way that could be detectable when looking in otherwise-blank regions of the galaxy. This is due to the Dark Matter. we didn't get the real definition of dark matter but we have an idea to understand it which got easy by taking an example that I had given above.

Properties Of Dark Matter

Its properties are not still defined but have an idea behind it given below :

  • Dark Matter is some form of material that neither emits, reflects nor absorbs electromagnetic radiation ( radio wave, light, gamma Rays).
  • Normal Matter( atoms, molecule, people, planets, galaxies) may appear dark to our eyes that is because it absorbs light.
  • A better name of DARK MATTER might be "INVISIBLE MATTER".

History Of Dark Matter

In 2014, a seminal work discovered excess X-ray emission from nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters. 

Now, a meta-analysis of raw data taken by the XMM-Newton space X-ray telescope of objects in the Milky Way over a period of 20 years has found no evidence that the sterile neutrino is what comprises dark matter.

This 2014 paper and follow-up works confirmed the signal generated a significant amount of interest in the astrophysics and particle physics communities because of the possibility of knowing.

What Kinds Of Things That DARK MATTER Explains?

Dark Matter Explains Galaxy Rotation: Original evidence for dark matter came from rotation curves of galaxies and galaxy clusters measured velocity on the outskirts are too large for the visible amount of matter.

Dark Matter Explains Gravitational Lensing: Light from background galaxies bend into arcs which indicates that there is something that helps or through which the light bend as it in a circle.

Dark Matter Explains Galaxy Clusters Collision: This means that it also defines the collision of galaxies and form a huge or bid galaxy which is known as Galaxy Clusters Collision.

Dark Energy??

While matter attracts (gravity), dark energy, on the other hand, produces a repulsive force (antigravity) that pushes matter outward. It’s not an object but rather a property of space, and it helps explain why our universe is expanding. 

History Of dark Energy

In 1929, legendary astronomer Edwin Hubble observed the “redshift” phenomenon that proved that our universe has been expanding since the Big Bang. For decades, astronomers believed that gravity would cause the expansion to slow down.

According to Mental Floss, astronomers were using the Hubble Space Telescope to study distant supernovae, when they observed that around 7.5 billion years after the Big Bang, the universe began expanding at an even faster rate. According to NASA, no one expected to discover that the expansion was accelerating, and scientists still can’t explain it, but they can tell that it exists because it affects the expansion of the universe.

What Is Dark Energy?

According to NASA, there are several theories for what dark energy is. It may be an inherent property of space. Contrary to popular belief, empty space is not anything. It has properties; it can expand and possess its own energy, as Albert Einstein suggested with his gravity theory and the cosmological constant.

The quantum theory of matter provides a second explanation for dark energy. This theory suggests that “ 'empty space' is actually full of temporary (‘virtual’) particles that continually form and disappear.” However, this theory is highly unlikely, because when physicists attempted to use this theory for calculations, the answer came out wrong, according to NASA.

A third option is that dark energy is a new kind of dynamical energy fluid or field, which some scientists have called “quintessence.” If that’s the case, we still don’t know anything about it, says NASA.

Lastly, perhaps Einstein’s theory of gravity is not correct, and that’s why dark energy doesn’t fit into our equation of the universe. All of our current knowledge and understanding of the universe depend on Einstein’s theory being true, so if dark energy exposes an error, then we’re back at square one. It would upend our entire understanding of the universe.

Dark Energy vs. Dark Matter: Mysteries Remain

All this is to say, we still don’t know much about these “dark” aspects of space. One is a thing, another is a property, and they are both invisible and illogical. That’s why dark matter and dark energy are two of the most exciting areas of science, and scientists around the world are racing to find the answers to the dark parts of space. At this point, what we know is a process of elimination and circumstantial evidence. We know what they’re not, we see the effects, and there is evidence that they exist.

Space is often seen as the ultimate symbol of nothingness, but in reality, space isn’t empty at all. It’s just full of dark things and dark forces that we don’t understand yet.

Question Arises

What is dark matter in simple terms?

ANS: Dark matter is composed of particles that do not absorb, reflect, or emit light, so they cannot be detected by observing electromagnetic radiation. Dark matter is the material that cannot be seen directly with our naked eyes. We know that dark matter exists and this is because of the effect it has on objects that we can observe directly.

Is dark matter made of atoms?

ANS: The mysterious dark matter that makes up most of the matter in the universe that could be composed, in part, of invisible and nearly intangible counterparts of those atoms, protons and electrons, researchers say. Dark matter is an invisible substance that can't be seen by our naked eyes thought to make up five-sixths of all matter in the universe.

Why is dark matter important?

ANS: Dark matter is the most mysterious, non-interacting substance in the Universe. Dark Matter's gravitational effects are necessary to explain the rotation of galaxies, the motions of clusters, and the huge largest scale-structure in the entire Universe.

Do all galaxies have dark matter?

ANS: Astronomers have long theorized the existence of dark galaxies, but there are no confirmed examples to date. Dark galaxies are only distinct from intergalactic gas clouds and this is caused by galactic tidal that interactions since these gas clouds do not contain dark matter, so they did not technically qualify as galaxies.

What are the types of dark matter?

ANS: Most scientists think that dark matter is composed of non-baryonic matter. There are really three known types of neutrinos and a fourth, the sterile neutrino, is proposed as like as a dark matter candidate. The sterile neutrino would only interact with regular type matter through the gravity.

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